Archive centreKendal
ReferenceWDS 39
TitleHawkshead Grammar School
DescriptionThe records of the Hawkshead Grammar School mainly relate to the administration of the school, in particular its finance and governance. A large proportion of the records relate to the endowments of land and charitable bequests bestowed on the school by its founder and the administering of its finances by the governors appointed to the school.
Lands were endowed on the school by its founder Edwyn Sandys, the Archbishop of York and hence the collection holds a large number of title deeds, along with a small number of other property related documents.
The records of endowment give an overview of the founding of the school and include a number of conveyances of land from Archbishop Sandys to the school (1587-1589). Other endowments to the school were received by bequest such as those from Daniel Rawlinson (1672) and Thomas Sandys (1717). Accounts concerning the distribution of these charitable gifts can be found in the financial records section of the catalogue.
The records of constitution also include rules for the governance of the school including a case in Chancery (1835-36) to re-establish the regulation and constitution of the school.
The records of governance include minutes and accounts of the governors of the school (1726-1863), correspondence concerning appointments of governors and head teachers and form a small but essential part of the collection.
As a collection there is little in the way of personal information on pupils and staff, but the inspection forms and examination reports (1872-1908) do throw some light on the educational standards of pupils and teaching in the late 19th century.
Given there are no formal school accounts after 1863, a useful record are two files of vouchers and receipts (1863-1908) which show how monies were spent on both pupil and school needs in the latter half of the 19th century and in the years preceding the school's closure.

A Charter for the establishment of a Grammar School in Hawkshead was given by Letters Patent of Queen Elizabeth I in 1585 following a petition by Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York. This Charter for the establishment of the school was granted on 10 April 1585 and required the creation of a body corporate to govern the school and the endowments which the Archbishop had set aside for the school. In order to ensure an income for the school, the Archbishop had settled land in Wakefield, Trumfleet, near Doncaster and Hawkshead, to the benefit of the school, as well as rents from property in Kendal.
In 1588, Archbishop Sandes founded the Hawkshead Grammar School by setting out statutes for its regulation, which amongst other stipulations, stated that, "There shall be a perpetual free school, to be called 'The Free Grammar School of Edwyne Sandys' for teaching grammar and the principles of the Greek tongue, with other sciences necessary to be taught in a grammar school".
The school offered free education to boys from the parish of Hawkshead, whilst those from outside the parish paid an entrance fee and an annual fee, known as the "cock-penny".
The school had a salaried Master and Usher, with a house and lands in Hawkshead for the Master.
In 1675 the school was re-built with funds provided by Daniel Rawlinson, who also left a bequest to the school of £100 with detailed stipulations as to its use. Other benefactors included George Satterthwaite, William Dennison and Thomas Sandys who all left gifts to the school. By the statutes set out by Archbishop Sandys, it was the governors' responsibility to manage the endowments and gifts to the school. This included collecting rents from tenants in Yorkshire, Kendal and Hawkshead, as well as maintaining the buildings and leases to tenants. The accounts of those asked to collect these rents bear witness to the difficulty of maintaining these estates, and so the lands in Yorkshire were sold in the 1830s. Land and property in Hawkshead was bought instead which made collection of rents and maintenance far easier.
By the 1830s the constitution set down by Archbishop Sandys in the 16th century had become unworkable and a new scheme was proposed and settled in Chancery in 1835. In 1862 an application to alter the scheme was made to the Charity Commissioners and following an inquiry, a new scheme of regulation was granted in 1863. This new scheme brought the administration of the governors and separate charities together into one body of governance. It also formalised the division of the school into an upper school where Classics were taught and a lower school for the teaching of English subjects. All children including those from Hawkshead were now to be charged a fee, with scholarship places available in each school.
A further change was made in 1891 by a Charity Commission order to separate the Lower School from the Upper, or Grammar School. Thus the Hawkshead Elementary School was formed, the forerunner of the present primary school. The Hawkshead Grammar School henceforth offered education to older children up to the age of 14, providing a wide curriculum, which was examined annually by an external examiner. Admittance into the school was by entrance examination. The school was no longer able to offer preparation for Universitey entrance, but would prepare pupils for entry into larger public schools, or for the Oxford and Cambridge Local Examinations.
By the end of the 19th century pupil numbers had dropped considerably. The 1902 Education Act allowed County Councils to set up their own schools and the opening of the Victoria Grammar School in Ulverston put pressure on numbers attending the school in Hawkshead. The 1909 Kelly's Directory of Lancashire states that in 1908 there were 17 boys enrolled, 6 of whom were boarders and by the end of 1909, the school had closed.
The school's endowments continued to be administered by the board of governors, a system which continues to this day. The Governors offer financial support for education purposes to children of Hawkshead village as well as maintaining and operating the Grammar School Museum housed in the original school buildings. Further information can be found at www.hawksheadgrammar.org.uk
The original grammar school building in Hawkshead is now a museum open to the public and includes items such as original Letters Patent of Queen Elizabeth I dated 10 April 1585, the school library and Edwin, Archbishop of York's copy of "The Bishop's Bible" which he was instrumental in translating.
Date1574-1990
Extent5 boxes
Access conditionsAdmission registers, log books and punishment books subject to 90 (Secondary), 93 (Juniors) and 97 (Infants) years closure
ContextA Charter for the establishment of a Grammar School in Hawkshead was given by Letters Patent of Queen Elizabeth I in 1585 following a petition by Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York. This Charter for the establishment of the school was granted on 10 April 1585 and required the creation of a body corporate to govern the school and the endowments which the Archbishop had set aside for the school. In order to ensure an income for the school, the Archbishop had settled land in Wakefield, Trumfleet, near Doncaster and Hawkshead, to the benefit of the school, as well as rents from property in Kendal.
In 1588, Archbishop Sandes founded the Hawkshead Grammar School by setting out statutes for its regulation, which amongst other stipulations, stated that; "There shall be a perpetual free school, to be called 'The Free Grammar School of Edwyne Sandys' for teaching grammar and the principles of the Greek tongue, with other sciences necessary to be taught in a grammar school."
The school offered free education to boys from the parish of Hawkshead, whilst those from outside the parish paid an entrance fee and an annual fee, known as the "cock-penny".
The school had a salaried Master and Usher, with a house and lands in Hawkshead for the Master.
In 1675 the school was re-built with funds provided by Daniel Rawlinson, who also left a bequest to the school of £100 with detailed stipulations as to its use. Other benefactors included George Satterthwaite, William Dennison and Thomas Sandys who all left gifts to the school. By the statutes set out by Archbishop Sandys, it was the governors' responsibility to manage the endowments and gifts to the school. This included collecting rents from tenants in Yorkshire, Kendal and Hawkshead, as well as maintaining the buildings and leases to tenants. The accounts of those asked to collect these rents bear witness to the difficulty of maintaining these estates, and so the lands in Yorkshire were sold in the 1830s. Land and property in Hawkshead was bought instead which made collection of rents and maintenance far easier.
By the 1830s the constitution set down by Archbishop Sandys in the 16thC had become unworkable and a new scheme was proposed and settled in Chancery in 1835. In 1862 an application to alter the scheme was made to the Charity Commissioners and following an inquiry, a new scheme of regulation was granted in 1863. This new scheme brought the administration of the governors and separate charities together into one body of governance. It also formalised the division of the school into an upper school where Classics were taught and a lower school for the teaching of English subjects. All children including those from Hawkshead were now to be charged a fee, with scholarship places available in each school.
A further change was made in 1891 by a Charity Commission order to separate the Lower School from the Upper, or Grammar School. Thus the Hawkshead Elementary School was formed, the forerunner of the present primary school. The Hawkshead Grammar School henceforth offered education to older children up to the age of 14, providing a wide curriculum, which was examined annually by an external examiner. Admittance into the school was by entrance examination. The school was no longer able to offer preparation for University entrance, but would prepare pupils for entry into larger public schools, or for the Oxford and Cambridge Local Examinations.
By the end of the 19thC pupil numbers had dropped considerably. The 1902 Education Act allowed County Councils to set up their own schools and the opening of the Victoria Grammar School in Ulverston put pressure on numbers attending the school at Hawkshead. The 1909 Kelly's Directory of Lancashire states that in 1908 there were 17 boys enrolled, 6 of whom were boarders and by the end of 1909, the school had closed.
The school's endowments continued to be administered by the board of governors, a system which continues to this day. The Governors offer financial support for education purposes to children of Hawkshead village as well as maintaining and operating the Grammar School Museum housed in the original school buildings. Further information can be found at: http://www.hawksheadgrammar.org.uk
Physical descriptionSome items are very fragile and will need conservation treatment before they can be produced.
Related materialRelated Material - The original Grammar School building in Hawkshead is now a museum open to the public and includes items such as the original Letters Patent of Queen Elizabeth I dated 10 April 1585, the school library and Edwin, Archbishop of York's copy of "The Bishop's Bible" which he was instrumental in translating.
Catalogue levelFonds
Subject termsGrammar schools
Charity schools
Estates (land)
Financial records
School governors
Education
Schools

Show related name indexes

Show related place indexes

Persons
CodePerson/Corporate namesDates
NA801Sandys; Edwin (1516-1588); Archbishop of York1516-1588
NA994Hawkshead Grammar School; 1588-19091588-1909
Places
CodePlace names
PAX99Hawkshead/Lancashire
NA1012Wakefield/Yorkshire
NA678Trumfleet/Doncaster/Yorkshire
PAX2Kendal/Kendal/Kendal Ward/Westmorland
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